List of terms

* Apache
* cron
* dns
* ftp
* html
* imap
* IP
* Microsoft SQL Serverl
* perl
* php
* phpMyAdmin
* pop3
* smtp
* wap
* whois

* Domain
* Domain name
* Domain zone
* Spam
* Hosting

Apache HTTP-server (usually pronounced Apache or Apache) – is an open source web server. Since April 1996 it has been the most popular HTTP server on the Internet:
In May 1999 it worked on 57% of web servers, in August 2004 it worked on 67%.
The main advantages of Apache are considered to be reliability, relative resistance to burglary and flexibility of configuration. It allows you to connect external modules to provide data, use DBMS to authenticate users, modify error messages, etc. It supports IPv6.

ASP (Active Server Pages) is a Microsoft technology that makes it easy to develop applications for the World Wide Web. ASP runs on the Windows NT line operating system platform and the IIS web server. ASP is not a programming language – it is just a preprocessing technology that allows you to connect software modules during the process of creating a Web page.The relative popularity of ASP is based on the simplicity of the used scripting languages (VBScript or JScript) and the possibility of using external COM-components.
ASP technology has evolved in the form of ASP.NET – a new technology for creating web applications based on the Microsoft .NET platform.

CGI (Common Gateway Interface) is an interface standard used to connect an external program with a web server. A program that works through such an interface in conjunction with a web server is commonly referred to as a gateway, although many prefer the names script or CGI-program.
The interface itself is designed so that any programming language that can work with standard I/O devices can be used. Even scripts for built-in shells of operating systems have this capability, so even these simple shell scripts can be used in cases where there is no need for complicated functionality.
All scripts are usually placed in the cgi-bin directory of the server, but this is optional: the script can be located anywhere, but most web servers require special configuration.

Cron is a task scheduler, a daemon in Unix-like operating systems for periodically executing tasks at set times.
Each user of the system has his own crontab task file, which describes at what time and what programs to run on behalf of this user. To edit a crontab file, a special crontab program is used. This is done so that the cron can continue during editing.

DNS (Domain Name System) – is a system that allows you to convert the character names of domains in the IP-addresses (and vice versa) in TCP / IP networks.
DNS is important for the work of the Internet, because to connect to a host you need information about its IP-address, and for people it is easier to remember the alphabetic (usually meaningful) addresses than a sequence of numbers IP-address. Initially, the conversion between domain and IP addresses was done using a special text file DHOSTS.TXT, which was compiled centrally and updated manually on each of the network machines. With the growth of the web there was a need for an efficient, automated mechanism, which became the DNS.

File Transfer Protocol (lit. “file transfer protocol”) or simply FTP is a network protocol for transferring files in computer networks.
The FTP protocol allows you to connect to FTP servers, browse the contents of directories and download files from or to the server, and also allows you to transfer files between servers (see FXP).
FTP is one of the oldest application protocols, appearing long before HTTP in 1971. Before the early 1990s, FTP accounted for about half of Internet traffic. This protocol is still used today for software distribution and access to remote hosts.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the standard language for marking up documents on the World Wide Web. Almost all web pages are created using HTML or its successor, XHTML.
HTML is formally an application of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and conforms to the international standard ISO 8879.

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is an Internet application layer protocol for accessing e-mail.
IMAP provides the user with a wealth of options for dealing with mailboxes that reside on a central server. A mail program that uses this protocol accesses the mail repository on the server as if the mail were located on the recipient’s computer. E-mails can be manipulated from the user’s (client’s) computer without having to continuously send files with the full content of the e-mails to and from the server.

IP (Internet Protocol – Internet Protocol) – is a routable network protocol, the basis of the TCP / IP protocol stack.
The IP protocol (RFC 791) is used for unreliable delivery of data (divided into so-called packets) from one network node to another. This means that at the level of this protocol, there is no guarantee that a packet will reach its destination reliably. In particular, packages may not arrive in the order in which they were sent, be damaged, or not arrive at all. Guarantees error-free packet delivery are provided by higher (transport) layer protocols – such as TCP – which use IP as the transport.

Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system (DBMS) produced by Microsoft. Supports a superset of the SQL language (Transact-SQL), i.e. full-fledged SQL-92 with its own extensions. It is used for small and medium sized databases, and in the last 5 years for large enterprise scale databases, and competes with other DBMS in this market segment.

MySQL (pronounced “Mys QC El”) is a free database management system. MySQL is the property of MySQL AB, which develops and maintains the application. Distributed under the GNU GPL and its own commercial license of your choice. In addition, the company MySQL AB develops functionality by order of licensed users, it is thanks to such an order almost in the earliest versions appeared replication mechanism.
MySQL is fast, robust and easy to use and is the solution for small and medium applications. Along with Oracle Database, it is one of the fastest DBMSs today. Included in LAMP. The proliferation of DBMS MySQL under GPL license and high query processing speed has led to the fact that the database has become the de facto standard in network hosting services.

Perl is a programming language. Creator Larry Wall. The word Perl itself is an acronym that stands for Practical Extraction and Report Language, which is why the language was first called PEARL, but then the letter “A” was “lost”. There are also a number of other options. According to the most beautiful one, the name perl comes from the word pearl. The mascot of the Perl language is a camel – not too pretty, but a very hardy animal that can do hard work.
The main feature of the language is considered to be its rich possibilities for working with text, implemented by means of regular expressions.

PHP (pronounced pi-h-pi?, pe-ash-pa?) is a scripting programming language designed to generate HTML pages on a web server and work with databases. Currently supported by the vast majority of hosting representatives. Included in LAMP, the “standard” set for building websites.
In the field of web programming, PHP is one of the most popular scripting languages (along with JSP and languages used in ASP) because of its simplicity, speed of execution, rich functionality and distribution of source codes under the PHP license.

phpMyAdmin – Open Source web application written in PHP and is a web interface for the administration of DBMS MySQL. phpMyAdmin allows you to administer the MySQL server through a browser, run SQL commands and view the contents of tables and databases. The application is very popular with web developers because it allows you to manage the MySQL DBMS without directly entering SQL commands, providing a user-friendly interface.
Today, phpMyAdmin is widely used in practice. The latter is due to the fact that the developers are intensively developing their product, taking into account all the innovations of DBMS MySQL. The vast majority of domestic providers use this application as a control panel in order to provide their customers with the ability to administer their allocated databases.

POP3 (Post Office Protocol Version 3) – is a network protocol used to deliver e-mail messages to recipients in TCP/IP networks. It is usually used in conjunction with SMTP, where SMTP sends a message on its way from the sender to the destination mail server and POP3 allows the recipient to retrieve the message from the server.
An alternative protocol for collecting messages from the mail server is IMAP.
It uses TCP port 110 by default.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) – is a network protocol for sending e-mail in TCP/IP networks.
SMTP is used to send mail from users to servers and between servers for onward forwarding to the recipient. Data is transmitted via TCP, using port 25 or 587.

SSH (Secure Shell) is a network protocol that allows remote computer control and file transfer. Similar in functionality to Telnet and rlogin, but using encryption algorithms for transmitted information.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a cryptographic protocol ensuring secure data transmission over the Internet. It creates a secure connection between the client and the server. SSL was originally developed by Netscape Communications, now accepted by the IETF as a standard. Supported by all popular browsers.
Uses public key encryption to authenticate the transmitter and receiver. Supports reliable data transmission through the use of correction codes and secure hash functions.

VPS (Virtual Private Server) – Virtual Private Server, are an alternative to Dedicated. The main difference is the concept of separation. This concept allows you to run multiple applications on a single server. Any VPS is similar in its capabilities to an ordinary dedicated server. In particular: root access, custom IP addresses, ports, filtering rules and routing tables. Within the virtual server you can create your own versions of the system libraries or modify existing ones, the VPS owner can delete, add, modify any files, including files in the head and other service directories, and install your own applications or customize/modify any application software available to him. VPS rates can be used for both reselling and just individual projects. But, of course, since it is a Virtual Dedicated Server, any tariff is a limit on the use of system resources (memory and CPU).

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) is a means of accessing the resources of the Internet through a cell phone without the need for a computer and/or modem. It is essentially a technical standard describing the way in which information from the Internet is transmitted to the display of a cell phone.
Theoretically, if a cell phone screen could display the same variety of information as the computer display, the WAP would not differ from the display of conventional WEB-pages. But because the resolution of the cell phone display screen is low, the display of WAP-sites is characterized by insufficient graphics and animation, and the amount of information is reduced to the required minimum.

WHOIS (from who is – “who is”) – network protocol application layer, based on the TCP protocol (port 43), designed to query the remote databases (DB). The protocol implies a “client-server” architecture. The whois protocol is mainly used to access the public databases of IP registrars and domain name registrars. The current version of this protocol is described in RFC 3912. Command line whois clients are used more often. Since the command line is inaccessible or inconvenient for many users, web forms based on such clients are made available to users via the HTTP protocol. There are also whois clients with a graphical interface.
Databases with whois-interface may be centralized or distributed. In the first case, one whois-server contains a complete database and responds to queries concerning all registrars. Such is the structure of whois-server for .org domain. In the second, the central whois-server does not contain the full database, but only redirects the user to the whois-server of the corresponding registrar. This is how the .com whois works. When the whois client “knows” how to recognize such a redirection, it automatically queries the appropriate external whois-server, otherwise the user has to do it manually. The whois protocol does not distinguish between centralized and distributed models.

Domain – area (branch) of the Internet domain name hierarchical space, which is designated by a unique domain name.

Domain name – symbolic domain name. Must be unique within a single domain. A complete domain name consists of the names of all the domains to which it belongs, separated by dots. For example, the full name is (with a dot at the end) indicates the third-level domain ru, which is part of the second-level domain wikipedia, which is part of the domain org, which is part of the root domain. Domain name is used to address Internet nodes and network resources located on them (web sites, e-mail servers, network services) in a human-friendly form. An alternative is to address the node by IP-address, which is less convenient and harder to remember.

Domain zone – a set of domain names of a certain level included in a particular domain. For example, the zone. means all third-level domain names in this domain. The term “domain zone” is mainly used in the technical sphere, when setting up DNS servers (zone maintenance, zone delegation, zone transfer).

Spam – mass mail of advertising or other nature, sent to people who have not expressed their desire to receive it. First and foremost, the term spam refers to advertising emails.

Hosting – a service to provide disk space for the physical location of the site files on a server that is permanently online (usually the Internet).
The service may also include the provision of space for postal correspondence, databases, etc., as well as support for the operation of related services.
Usually provided by hosting companies. The provision of hosting services is usually accompanied by a domain registration service.

All materials are taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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